Lawrence Textile Strike of 1912 Bibliography

Monographs non-fiction

Baxandall, Rosalyn.

Words on Fire: The life and writing of Elizabeth Gurley Flynn.  New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1987.


Bedford, Henry F.

Socialism and the workers in Massachusetts, 1886-1912  Amherst, MA U. of Mass. Press, 1966


Cahn, William.

1912: The Bread & Roses Strike.  NY: Pilgrim Press, 1980 (original title, Mill Town; 1954)

Pictorial History of American Labor: The Contributions of the Working Man and Woman to America’s Growth, from Colonial Times to the Present.  NY: Crow Publishers.

Mill town: a dramatic, pictorial narrative of the century-old fight to unionize an industrial town ... New York Cameron & Kahn 1954.


Cameron, Ardis.

Radicals of the Worst Sort: Laboring Women in Lawrence, MA, 1860-1912. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1993.


The Chronicles of America series  Allen Johnson, editor, Gerhard R. Lomer, Charles W. Jefferys, assistant editors v.40 -

Armies of labor


Citizens’ Association,

 Lawrence as it really is: Not as syndicalists, anarchists, socialists, suffragists pseudo philanthropists & muckraking yellow journalists have painted it.  Lawrence, MA:

A Reign of Terror in an American City: Some of the Ways in Which Lawrence was held in Subjection by a Gang of Out of Town Agitators. Lawrence, MA 1912.

What City after Lawrence! In what other American community will the combination that lied about Lawrence encamp and pursue the same tactics? Lawrence MA, 1912.


Cole, Donald.

Immigrant City. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1963, 1980.


Dengler, Eartha.

Lawrence, Massachusetts: The Strike of 1912: We want bread and roses too. Lawrence, MA: Immigrant City Archives & Lawrence Heritage State Park, nd


Dubofsky, Melvyn.

We shall be all: A history of the Industrial Workers of the World. NY: NY Times Book Co., 1969.

Big Bill Haywood. NY: St Martin’s Press, 1987.


Ebert, Justus. 

The trial of new society  Cleveland, Ohio IWW


Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley.

The Rebel Girl: An autobiography, my first life (1906-1926) NY: International Publishers, 1955, 1973.


Garrison, Dee.

Mary Heaton Vorse: The life of an American Insurgent. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1989.


Hamm, Alice.

Exploring the dangerous trades; the autobiography of Alice Hamilton, M.D. Boston, 1943.


Haywood, William

Bill Haywood’s Book: The Autobiography of Big Bill Haywood. NY, 1929.Holland, Ruth Mill Child: The story of child labor in America.NY: Crowell Collier Press, 1970.


Kornbluh, Joyce L., ed.     

Rebel Voice: An IWW Anthology. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Press, 1964.


Laudani, Philip A.             

Essays in time 2002.                                     

Lawrence, Massachusetts: a story of protest, patriotism, thanksgiving and truth. Lawrence, Mass.: Eagle Tribune Print, [1912]                                        

Life and Times in Immigrant City: Memories of the textile town.  A booklet commemorating the second Massachusetts History Workshop. Merrimack Valley  Textile Museum. Amalgamated Clothes and Textile Workers Union, with a grant from MA Foundation for the Humanities and Public Policy.Lawrence, MA, October 12, 1980.


Moran, Bill.                      

The belles of New England: the women of the textile mills and the families whose wealth they wove New York 2002.


Neill, Charles P., U.S. Commissioner of Labor.

Report on Strike of Textile Workers in Lawrence, Massachusetts in 1912, 62nd Congress, Second Session, Senate Document #870, Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.


Roddy, Edward G.,     

Mills, Mansions, and Mergers: The Life of William Madison Wood.  North Andover, MA: Merrimack Valley Textile Museum, 1982.


Salvatore, Nicholas.    

Eugene V. Debs.  Urbana, Ill.: Univ. of Illinois Press, 1982.


Sanger, Margaret.      

An Autobiography. NY: W.W. Norton, 1938.


Seeger, Pete & Bob Reiser. 

Carry it On: The story of America’s Working People in Song and Picture. Bethlehem, PA: A Sing Out Publication, 1985, 1991.     


Todd, Robert & Frank Sanborn.

The Report of the Lawrence Survey… Andover, MA: Andover Press, The White Fund. 1911.


United States. Army. Massachusetts Infantry Regiment, 1st.

The busy bee: Strike special. 1912.


Watson, Bruce. 

Bread and roses: mills, migrants, and the struggle for the American dream New York, Viking, 2005.


Werstein, Irving.

Pie in the Sky: The Wobblies and their times, NY: Delacorte Press, 1969.


Yellen, Samuel.

American Labor Struggles. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co. [1936]


Zwick, Jim

Bread and roses: the lost histories of a slogan and a poem 2002







Page #s

Cahn, William

Labor in the World War I era

A pictorial history of American labor



Baker, Ray Stannard

The revolutionary strike

American magazine



Deland, Lorin F.

The Lawrence strike: a study

Atlantic Monthly

May 1912




Boston Globe

1988 1995



Lawrence as it really is

Citizens Association of Lawrence




What city after Lawrence

Citizens Association of Lawrence




Reign of terror in an American City

Citizens Association of Lawrence



Child, Richard Washburn

Who’s violent? The judiciary, the militia, the police, or the labor leaders? Ettor and Giovanetti are still in jail without trial

Collier’s Weekly

June 29, 1912

12, 13, 22

Corcoran, Theresa

Vida Scudder and the Lawrence Textile Strike

Essex Institute Historical Coll.

July 1979



Various articles

Evening Tribune



Vorse, Mary Heaton

Trouble at Lawrence

Harpers Weekly

March 16,1912


Marcy, Mary E.

The battle for bread at Lawrence

International Socialist Review

Mar. 1912



The legacy of the 1912 Lawrence Textile Strike

Labor Unity ACTW




Work and wages at Lawrence

Literary Digest

July 20, 1912



Dynamite in the Lawrence Strike

Literary Digest

Dec. 14, 1912



The Lawrence strike children

Literary Digest

March 9, 1912



Bread and roses day in Lawrence: 1199 co-sponsors April 27 commemoration of 1912 strike.

1199 News

April 1980


Pratt, Walter Merriam

The Lawrence Revolution

New England Magazine

Mar. 1912



One striker killed; two leaders held

New York Times

Jan. 31, 1912


Lauck, W. Jett

The lesson from Lawrence

North American Review



Fosdick, Harry

After the strike-in Lawrence

The Outlook

June 15, 1912



The Salem trial of the Lawrence case

The Outlook

Dec. 7, 1912



The exoneration of William M Wood

The Outlook

June 21, 1913



The IWW pageant

The Outlook

June 21, 1913



The aftermath of the strike

The Outlook

June 1, 1912



Poet of the IWW

The Outlook

June 5, 1913


Werstein, Irving

The Lawrence Strike

Pie in the sky




How the other half lives

Practical politics

March 9, 1912


Maurer, Carol

A more perfect union hall


Sept. 2000



Congress and the Lawrence strike

The Protectionist

April 1912


Chalmers, Thomas

Some Problems presented by the Lawrence strike

The Protectionist

April 1912


Marvin, T.O.

Handling the Lawrence strike

The Protectionist

April 1912


Hamilton, Rev. Frederick W.

Lessons from Lawrence

The Protectionist

April 1912



Misrepresentation of conditions in Lawrence

The Protectionist

April 1912



The public and the wage increases

The Protectionist

April 1912


O’Sullivan, Mary K.

The labor war at Lawrence

The Survey

April 6, 1912



Statements by people who took part

The Survey

April 6, 1912


Scudder, Prof. Vida D.

For justice sake

The Survey

April 6, 1912


Lawrence Textile Workers Strike Comm.

Lawrence and the Industrial Workers of the World

The Survey

April 6, 1912



Lawrence demonstration strike

The Survey

Oct. 12, 1912



Special forces

The Survey

April 6, 1912


Weyl, Walter E.

It is time to know

The Survey

April 6, 1912


Woods, Robert A.

The breadth and depth of the Lawrence outcome

The Survey

April 6, 1912


Ford, James

The cooperative Franco-Belge of Lawrence

The Survey

April 6, 1912


Carstens, C.C.

The children’s exodus from Lawrence

The Survey

April 6, 1912



Two hours, reduced wages, and a strike

The Survey

Jan. 27, 1912


Palmer, Lewis E.

A strike for four loaves of bread

The Survey

Feb. 3, 1912



The causes of the strike

The Survey

Jan. 27, 1912


Lauck, W. J.

The significance of the situation in Lawrence

The Survey

Feb. 17, 1912



The embargo of the strike children

The Survey

Mar. 2, 1912


Lovejoy, Owen R.

Right of free speech in Lawrence

The Survey

Mar. 9, 1912



The trend of things

The Survey

Mar. 9, 1912


Woods, Robert A.

The clod stirs

The Survey

Mar. 16, 1912


Sumner, Mary Brown

The broad silk weavers of Paterson

The Survey

Mar. 16, 1912


Leupp, Constance D.

The Lawrence strike hearings

The Survey

Mar. 23, 1912


Clark, Earle

Wages in cotton mills at home an abroad

The Survey

Mar. 23, 1912


Rowell, Wilbur E.

The Lawrence strike

The Survey

Mar. 23, 1912



The Lawrence settlement

The Survey

Mar. 23, 1912


Brewster, Edwin T.

Free speech in Lawrence

The Survey

Mar. 30, 1912



Ettor in jail: strike goes on

The Survey

Feb. 10, 1912


Manuscripts and theses

Armitage, Mary.         

Problems with mythmaking: Why Lawrence’s strike of 1912 should not be called the “Bread and Roses Strike”.  Ms. Nd.


Arnold, Dexter Philip

A row of bricks": worker activism in the Merrimack Valley textile industry, 1912-1922 Ph.D. thesis U. of Wisconsin 1985


Benanti, Carl Joseph. 

Lawrence Textile Strike of 1912: Contributions of the Italian Community. History Thesis, Merrimack College, Feb. 16, 1988


Caggiano, Joyce Christine

"No God, no master" the strike in Lawrence, Massachusetts 1912  Union Institute 2000


Davidson, Mark B. 

The Lawrence textile strike and the Boston elevated strike: the AFL and the IWW in Massachusetts during the progressive era Senior Honors thesis Brandeis University 1986


Greer, Cora Coggins

Economic class struggle in a one industry town: the Lawrence textile strike of 1912 Honor’s Thesis Smith College 1958


Hulburd, Lloyd Fuller,

Lawrence, Massachusetts: the textile strike of 1912 University of Vermont 1979


Kamien, Evan 

The mills of Lawrence, Massachusetts 2003.


Kiamie, Fred.

Early Industrial relations on Lawrence, Massachusetts. Thesis, Boston University, 1951.


Kingston, Richard J.

IWW in the east Masters thesis Central Connecticut State College 1982


Ouellete, Emile M.     

A history of the Lawrence Strike of 1912. Thesis, St. John’s University, 1951.


Pierce, Edward F., Jr.

Lawrence Textile Strike of 1912 and the Role of the Industrial Workers of the World. Thesis, South Connecticut State University.


Seddon, Michael

Provocation: Why the Lawrence Textile Strike of 1912 happened Honors these U. Mass. 1972.


Shoemaker, Caroline P.

Families through crisis: The Lawrence Textile Workers’ strike of 1912. Senior essay, Branford College [Yale University] 1977.


Sternberg, Linda

Women workers and the 1912 textile strike in Lawrence, Massachusetts  Master’s thesis Hampshire College 1975


Stroh, Paul

The Catholic clergy and American labor disputes 1900-1937  Ph.D thesis Catholic University of America 1939.


Turgeon, Susan Foley Charges of Unamericanism in the Lawrence textile strike of 1912 Master’s thesis Hofstra University 1975 (Bibliography and 1st 8 pages available at the LPL)



Churchill, Winston.     The Dwelling Place of Light.  NY: Macmillan, 1917, 1927.

Coleman, Lynne A.     Fighting for bread and roses: a novel Grand Rapids, MI Kregel Publications,2005.

Doctorow, E. L.          Ragtime. (Chapter 16), NY: Random House, 1974.

Farnum, Mabel.           Cry of the Streets. Boston : Angel Guardian Press, 1913.

Gambino, Richard,       Bread and Roses.  NY: Seaview Books, 1981.

Paterson, Katherine     Bread and roses, too NY 2005

Ziavras, Charles E.       Titanic interlude: a novel. Lowell, Mass.: Ithaca Press, 1982.



Collective Voices: The Massachusetts Labor Movement and the Textile Strike of 1912. Secondary Social Studies Curriculum Guide with 20-minutes video, MA AFL/CIO, Office of the MA Secretary of State & the Commonwealth of Museum, 1990.

God and country parade, Lawrence, Mass., poster, 1912

History detectives: episode 403 (vhs and DVD) 2006.

Jackson, Miles. Strike! The Lawrence, Massachusetts textile strike. 1 audio cassette, Random House, [1977]

Lawrence, Mass., panorama photographs 1912 (Militias)

Lawrence, Mass., textile strike of 1912 broadsides

Lawrence, Mass., textile strike of 1912, scrapbooks

Litterio, Lisa National History Day competition 2000 (ms and video)

Newspaper collection

Strike! LP 1977

Strike poetry 1912

Strike handbills